Android developers write not only in Java and Kotlin: in this article we will analyze 8 popular programming languages ​​that are suitable for developing Android applications, we will tell you how much the profession is in demand and where to master it.

Java

Java

It is the official language for Android development, supported by Android Studio, and the foundation for learning Kotlin.

In general, when debates begin about which is better, Java or Kotlin, you should remember that Kotlin is a wrapper over Java. To understand the Kotlin documentation and get help in the process of developing mobile Android applications, you should know exactly Java.

The main advantages of the language:

  • more materials and easier to find information;
  • large community;
  • the Android Studio environment was originally designed for working with Java;
  • knowing Java it is easy to learn Kotlin.

Kotlin

Kotlin

Another official and equally popular language. It also supports Android Studio, features syntactic sugar, and provides coroutines to make asynchronous work easier.

Java syntax in absentia assumes more cumbersome code than in the case of Kotlin. For example, this is how an Android developer would assign text to a field in these two programming languages:

Java

Java

Kotlin

Kotlin

As you can see, Kotlin allows you to write the same thing, but much faster, using fewer lines.

The main advantages of Kotlin in Android development:

  • concise code;
  • supported by Android Studio;
  • provides coroutines;
  • in demand due to the lack of Kotlin developers.

Note: The following languages ​​are recommended to be considered as alternatives and not as a base for Android development.

Python

Python

Yes, enthusiasts have managed to adapt one of the most popular programming languages ​​for Android development. This is implemented using Kivy and BeeWare:

  1. Kivy is an open source library for building cross-platform applications, including for Android and iOS.
  2. BeeWare is a suite of UI tools for building native Android apps.

Let’s face it, Android developers who write mobile apps in the Python programming language are rare. Basically, this is something for yourself or projects of young ambitious companies.

If you know Python, it’s definitely worth a try.

C / C ++

C / C ++

C languages ​​are positioned as high-performance languages, and this is important, especially if we are talking about something heavy like a mobile 3D game.

But it’s worth making a reservation right away that you still have to resort to Java: without this language, you cannot create a full-fledged mobile application. The Android NDK will allow you to write in C / C ++ only a part of an application, for example, a library that can be connected to a program via Java.

JavaScript

JavaScript

Android JS development is more viable.

With the React Native framework, you can create mobile apps with rich mobile UI. Moreover, such programs are completely native, that is, they are not mobile web applications. This is because React Native uses the same components as simple Android apps.

JavaScript advantages:

  • assembly is faster than in Android Studio;
  • there is flexbox for creating high-quality UI;
  • simple data transfer over the network using API.

Dart

Dart

Flutter is a relatively new technology from Google, a complete SDK released in 2018.

For a number of parameters, it is considered a better solution than React Native. Allows you to write cross-platform applications, therefore it is effective in developing Android applications with a common code base in the Dart language.

Dart is positioned as an alternative to JavaScript. It is compiled into binary code, due to which a high speed of operations is achieved. Instead of XML, Dart uses so-called layout trees.

The main advantages of Dart:

  • easy to master knowing Java;
  • high performance of programs;
  • Hot Reload in Flutter is a stateful fast reload.

C#

C#

Android programming with C # assumes the Xamarin. With its help, you can create one application logic in C # for Android and iOS.

A schematic representation of how Xamarin works:

A schematic representation of how Xamarin works

How to work with C # as a programming language for an Android developer

Source – Microsoft Documentation

As you can see, the user interface is developed individually for both platforms, while the business logic remains the same.

But, as with the Python programming language, an Android developer writing in C # is the exception rather than the rule. This solution is suitable for those who know the language and want to try their hand at mobile development.

Should you become an Android developer?

According to IDC, at the end of 2020, Android’s share of the smartphone market was 85%:

Year2018201920202021202220232024
Android 85.1%86.1%84.8%85%85.3%85.6%85.7%
IOS14.9%13.9%15.2%15%14.7%14.4%14.3%
Others0%0%0%0%0%0%0%
TOTAL100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
IDC Statistics

Worldwide, there are nearly 3 billion devices on this system. We can safely say that Android developer is a demanded profession.

According to hh.ru, there are about 7,000 relevant vacancies in Russia and 12,000 in the US, according to LinkedIn.

On the Glassdoor portal, the average salary of an Android developer in Russia is 170,000 rubles. per month, and in the US – $ 96,000 per annum.

In addition, mobile development also allows you to make money on your own applications. For clarity: the revenue of the Google Play market in 2020 was about $ 38.6 billion.

Conclusions

Despite the full range of languages, learning Android programming should start with Java and Kotlin, as the two official languages.

Android online courses are perfect for beginner Android developers and just beginners in programming, during which you can master both theory and participate in real projects.

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